Tudum or monga

Tudum or monga are mechanisms used to draw water from Kohli tanks for irrigation. Different mechanisms are used depending on the size of the tank.
For a small tank or a bori, a straight tunnel across the base of the bund is constructed using stones. A log is pitched at the mouth of the tunnel and plastered with clay. It is removed when water is required. For a medium or large tank, a straight tunnel across the base of the bund is constructed using stones over which a stair-like structure (monghad) is built, with a opening (dachcha) on each side. This is stopped with a stone slab or a wooden log carefully plastered with clay.

Sometimes, a hollow tree trunk is also placed across the base of a tank, to which another hollow tree trunk with holes at regular distances is placed vertically. These holes are plugged with cogs, which are removed to draw water. This system requires frequent repairs as tree trunks rot quickly. Besides, there are stringent forest laws, which make it difficult to obtain wooden logs.
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Networking of Farm Ponds
The Institute for Rural Development of the Bharatiya Agro-Industries Foundation has undertaken the excavation of 330 farm ponds in Adihalli watershed, spread over an area of 700 hectares in Arasikere taluka of Hassan district in Karnataka. The approach is based on a traditional concept where structures were dug out in strategic locations, locally known as kalyani. This overcomes the shortcomings of constructing check dams, which cannot be constructed in all terrain and the benefits of which are not available to upstream communities. A series of ponds, constructed along contour lines and connected to one another, allow easy access to water and a better soil moisture regime. In the Chotanagpur plateau in Orissa, the Professional Assistance for Development Action, an NGO, has also worked on farm ponds. It has promoted the idea of leaving a small part of the farm for water harvesting.
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Read more about Traditional Techniques
More on Urban water harvesting practices in this region

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